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高中英语构词法大全,帮你轻松掌握考纲3500词!

发表时间:2018-01-14 14:45 来源:重庆加大高中

他用肩膀推开人群前进。

(3)动词后缀

数词+名词

-tion“动作,过程,结果” invention, organization, translation

inside outside

-ess“表女性,雌性” hostess, actress, princess

-ern“方向” southern, northern, eastern

good-looking easy-going

(2)表示其他意义的前缀

They tried to perfect the working conditions.

副词+现在分词

形容词+现在分词

Life is full of ups and downs.

beforehand overhead

however

数词+名词+形容词

ward(s)“向……” towards, forward, upwards

-y“构成形容词” noisy dusty cloudy

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在英语中,一个单词由一种词性转化为另一种或几种词性而词形不变的方法叫做转化法。

non-nonstop nonsmoker

1. 动词转化为名词

-dom“处于……状态;性质” freedom, boredom

-er / or“表人或用具” farmer, baker, visitor, professor, cooker, container

形容词+名词

over-anxious evergreen

(1)表示否定意义的前缀

名词+动词

-al“与……有关的” physical, magical, political

物主代词+self/selves

-able “可……的,具有……的” acceptable drinkable knowledgeable reasonable

人生有得意时也有失意时。

How long have you lived there?

over-“太多,过分” overwork overdo overestimate

hardworking far-reaching

baby-sit sleepwalk

形容词+名词+ed

three-legged ten-storied

without within

除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,但不改变单词的词性。

-(a)bility“抽象、性质、状态” possibility, disability, reliability

你在那儿住多久了?

3. 形容词转化为动词

形容词+名词

Warm clothes are a must in the mountains.

名词+形容词/形容词+名词

二. 合成法(composition)

We will try our best to better our living conditions.

overcoat outside

Let me have a try.

形容词+动词

under-“在……下面,……下的,不足的” underline, underground, underestimate, underrate

由两个或两个以上的单词连在一起合成一个新词,这种构词法叫做合成法,合成的词叫做合成词(compounds)。合成词的写法由习惯决定,可以写在一起,也可以用连词符号连接。

well-informed widespread

代词宾格+self/selves

-ive“有……倾向的” active attractive expensive

动词+副词/ 副词+ 动词

breakthrough get-together outbreak outcome

穿暖和的衣服到山区去是必须的。

-an“属于某地方的人” American African

-ian“某国、某地人;精通……的人” musician, Asian, Russian, technician

tele-“远程的” telescope telephone telegraph

dis- disagree disbelieve

-ly “有……性质的” friendly yearly daily

typewriter pickpocket daybreak

-ness“性质,状态” illness, sadness, carelessness

-en“由……制成的” golden wooden woolen

world-famous duty-free large-scale long- term

1. 前缀

everywhere anyhow

-al“过程、状态” survival, arrival, approval

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介词+副词

-th“性质、情况” depth, warmth, truth

greenhouse highway

He shouldered his way through the crowd.

在学校里只准许他们出售不含酒精的饮料。

形容词+副词

co-“共同” coworker cooperate coexist

sister-in-law editor-in-chief

4. 形容词转化为名词

meanwhile anyway

(2)名词后缀

他不辨是非。

从厨房传来的气味使他流口水。

副词+过去分词

(5)数词后缀

2. 名词转化为动词

他的辩论中含有太多的“如果”和“但是”。

2. 合成形容词

2. 后缀

face –to-face door - to -door

newspaper blood-test she-wolf

inter-“相互” international intercontinental

副词+名词

-ful“(满的)量” handful, spoonful, mouthful

warm-hearted absent-minded

into

形容词+名词

动词+名词

handwriting reading-room freezing-point

-y“性质、情况” modesty, delivery, honesty

4. 合成副词

The old in our village are living a happy life.

-ese“某国(人)的” Chinese, Japanese

6. 个别词在一定场合中可转化为名词

5. 合成代词

bi-“双,二”bicycle bilingual bilateral

介词+名词

His argument contains too many ifs and buts.

数词+名词+ed

(4)副词后缀

forever

He didn’t know the difference between right and wrong.

-th“序数词” twelfth, twentieth

micro-“极小的,微小的” microwave microcomputer

我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。

副词+副词

peace-loving English-speaking

myself yourselves

herself themselves

man-made sun-burnt

名词+现在分词

名词+to+名词

The smell from the kitchen made his mouth water.

让我试试。

介词+副词

(1)形容词后缀

-ance/ ence“抽象;行为、性质、状态” importance, appearance, absence, existence

anti-“反对,抵抗” antiwar antifreeze antinuclear

outnumber underestimate overwork

one-way five–star

en-“使……” enrich enlarge encourage

They are only allowed to sell soft drinks at school.

anything nothing

-teen“十几” fourteen, eighteen, thirteen

auto-“自动的” automatic automobile

颜老师说:学习构词法的意义是什么呢?没错,就是它可以使我们能够轻松容易的认识更多单词,以一种巧妙的方式扩大词汇量。英语中的构词法主要有三种,即转化法、合成法和派生法。

由一个词加上前缀或后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词叫做派生法。

-ly“方式,程度” freely, truly, angrily

-ist“某种主义或职业者” physicist, scientist, communist,socialist

mis-misbehave mislead mistake

名词+过去分词

副词+形容词

-ty“整十位数” forty, fifty, sixty

1. 合成名词

un-unhappy unfinished undress

副词+名词

-ish“如……的;有……特征的” foolish childish selfish

名词+介词+名词

名词+v.-ing/v.-ing +名词

一. 转化法(conversion)

in[il-(在字母l前),im-(在字母m,b,p前),ir(在字母r前)]-inaccurate illegal impolite imbalance irregular

-fy / ify“使得;变得” simplify, beautify, purify

三. 派生法

re-“再,又,重” rethink retell recycle

-age“状态,行为,身份及其结果” courage, storage, marriage

-ous“有(性质)的” famous, dangerous, poisonous

-ful/ less“(没)有……的” helpful, useful, homeless, hopeless

-en“使成为……;变得” shorten, deepen, sadden

-ize“使成为” apologize, realize, specialize

我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。

6. 合成介词

副词+介词

ten-year-old 800-meter-long

self-“自己,本身” self-centered self-confident self-control

5. 形容词转化为副词

-ment“行为或其状态” government, movement, achievement

3. 合成动词

名词/代词+名词

副词+动词

whitewash

他们努力改善工作条件。

multi-“多” multistory multicultural multicolor

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